Lack of the hottest core technology, China's shipb

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Editor's note: from the perspective of development trend, ship electronic technology is developing in the direction of digitalization, automation, integration, intelligence and integration. With the gradual improvement of users' requirements for the high cost performance and high reliability of automatically calculating various experimental parameters and printing test reports, the manufacturing of marine electronic products is gradually developing in the direction of serialization, modularization and standardization

China has entered the ranks of international shipbuilding powers, but the domestic ship supporting industry is very weak. Enterprises generally import ship supporting core equipment from Germany and other developed countries, resulting in high procurement costs. Engines, electronic control equipment and other key ship supporting parts are generally imported from abroad, and the proportion of imported supporting products is as high as 70%. At present, the annual output value of the world's ship supporting industry is about 23 billion to 25 billion US dollars. The main manufacturers are concentrated in northwest Europe and Japan. Although China has greatly improved the R & D and manufacturing level of marine supporting equipment such as diesel engines, generator sets, propellers, etc., most of the ship supporting electronic products such as ship navigation equipment, communication equipment, steering system, control system, etc. are also foreign products. In order to adapt to the rapid development of China's shipbuilding industry, it has become a top priority to improve the scale and level of China's shipbuilding supporting industry, especially the shipbuilding electronics industry

electronic products are the bottleneck of China's shipbuilding industry.

marine electronic products are an important part of ship supporting products and components with high technical content and added value in ships

from the perspective of development trend, marine electronic technology is developing in the direction of digitalization, automation, integration, intelligence and integration. With the gradual improvement of users' requirements for high cost performance and high reliability, the manufacturing of marine electronic products is gradually developing towards serialization, modularization and standardization. Given that ship electronic technology is a typical dual-use technology for military and civil use, developed countries generally attach importance to and support large military enterprises to enter the maritime electronic industry, considering its dual role in the development of naval equipment and civil maritime shipping industry. In terms of market size, the current market size of the world's shipbuilding supporting industry is about 23 billion to 25 billion US dollars. The equipment with relatively large value in marine equipment are basically: diesel engine, generator set, propeller, auxiliary boiler, deck machinery, steering system, navigation and measurement system, cabin system, auxiliary system, safety and life-saving system, of which the value of marine electronic products accounts for about 15%. It is characterized by a wide range of products, a wide range of users, strong liquidity, and high requirements for price and service, but the demand for each kind of marine electronic products is limited (excluding ship transformation, the number of new ships built by ships of all sizes around the world is about 10000 every year). Although the overall market scale of marine electronic products is not large, its impact on the shipbuilding industry is not small, especially for China's shipbuilding industry, marine electronic products are still a major bottleneck

the market distribution of marine electronic products is uneven

the production of marine electronic products is currently mainly concentrated in some developed countries in Europe and the United States, such as Germany, Britain, Denmark, Norway, the United States, Canada, as well as Japan and South Korea in Asia. The market is mainly distributed in East Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe and the Americas, and there is a certain imbalance between production and market distribution

Europe is the birthplace of modern shipping and shipbuilding. After hundreds of years of development, a strong shipbuilding industry and ship supporting industry system has been formed. In recent years, although the world shipbuilding center has shifted to East Asia, Europe still has strong ship supporting capacity and is in a leading position in the ship supporting market, accounting for about half of the world market. At present, the high-end market of marine electronic products is mainly controlled by European and American countries. In view of the important role of Ship Electronic Commercial Technology in supporting the European and American Navy system, the civil ship electronic system and technology have been widely concerned and vigorously promoted by the European and American navy

Japanese and Korean manufacturers focus on the medium and low-end markets and can provide serialized products. Since the 1970s, Japan has replaced Europe to become a major shipbuilding country in the world. In the mid-1970s, when Japan's shipbuilding output reached 17.5 million tons, it has formed a complete range of supporting industries with high technical level, and has become a major shipbuilding equipment manufacturing country in the world. At present, the localization rate of supporting Shipbuilding Equipment in Japan has reached 98%. It is mainly through the introduction of advanced technology from European and American countries, the implementation of appropriate protection for domestic enterprises, the gradual integration of ship supporting enterprises, the formation of centralized production advantages according to professional division of labor, and the strengthening of coordination that Japan has greatly improved the localization rate of shipbuilding supporting equipment. Almost all the ships built by South Korea in the 1970s used imported materials and equipment. By the 1980s, while introducing equipment and technology, South Korea actively promoted the localization of marine equipment, took corresponding protective measures, reduced imports, and promoted the development of ship supporting industry. At present, the localization rate of shipbuilding supporting equipment in South Korea has reached 90%

there is still a lack of core technology

the rapid development of China's shipbuilding industry has greatly stimulated the demand for ship supporting equipment, including ship electronics and navigation equipment. At present, the actual matching rate of domestic equipment for conventional ships in China is only about 30%, so it is widely used in aviation, aerospace, metallurgy, scientific research and teaching in Colleges and universities, and industrial production. The actual matching rate of domestic equipment for new technology ships is only about 20%, especially the localization rate of marine electronic products with high added value is less than 10%, which forms a great contrast with the rapid development of China's shipbuilding industry. At present, the global demand for marine electronic equipment is close to 30 billion yuan per year, of which China's shipbuilding and ship repair market can provide a market of nearly 10 billion yuan per year for marine electronic equipment, but 90% is monopolized by imported products

the development and manufacturing of marine electronic products is one of the weakest links in China's shipbuilding industry. Domestic manufacturers of marine electronic products mainly focus on the low-end market, mainly act as agents for foreign products, have less independent innovation, and provide single sporadic products. There is a big gap between products and foreign similar products in terms of technical performance, quality, variety and specification, and even some key high-tech High value-added marine equipment and components cannot be produced in China at all and can only be imported. At present, the products that can be independently developed in China are only magnetic compass, gyro compass, log, depth sounder, etc., and can only be used on some domestic ships. In terms of service, most domestic supporting factories have no ability or consciousness to establish a global after-sales service network. In a word, domestic marine electronic equipment in China is deficient. Due to people-oriented, lack of core technology, no brand, no international sales and maintenance network, as well as prominent problems such as single products, low starting point of technology, poor systematization, backward technology, etc., it is basically still in the stage of learning and advanced. In terms of introducing foreign technology, domestic Jiangsu, Shanghai, Liaoning, Shandong and other places have successively introduced some foreign manufacturers or joint ventures, but most of them are non core technologies and products. In terms of radar, GMDSS equipment, autopilot, etc., due to the relative monopoly of electronics and navigation manufacturers in a few overseas developed countries, they are generally unwilling to sign patent transfer agreements, which makes the introduction of China's marine electronic technology quite difficult

classification society certification is the key

whether ship electronic products can enter the ship supporting system depends on factors such as technical level, product quality, brand awareness and service network. After the ship electronic products are developed, they must first pass the certification of classification society. If they want to enter the international market, they must pass the qualification certification of international famous classification society, such as China CCS, Britain LR, America ABS, France BV, Germany GL, Norway DNV, Japan NK, South Korea KR, etc. Products that have passed the certification also need to strive to expand the market to make the activity platform rise. Through the continuous use of users, they will gradually be recognized by customers and form an influential brand. At the same time, whether there is networked maintenance service guarantee is also an important factor for ship enterprises to choose. The product quality is excellent, but without a perfect global service network, it is difficult to open the international market and enter large ship repair and construction enterprises. Compared with foreign enterprises, the imperfect global service network of domestic enterprises has affected the promotion of private brands and the expansion of international markets

in terms of the supporting process of marine electronic products, generally, the shipowner puts forward the type selection requirements, and the ship design unit takes them into account in the design according to the requirements of the shipowner, and puts forward the manufacturer list of supporting products. The shipyard selects suppliers within the scope of the manufacturer list for procurement and installation. Therefore, the suppliers of supporting products need to be negotiated and determined by the ship owner, ship design unit and shipyard. The ship design unit and shipyard can make suggestions on the type selection, but the main decision-making power lies with the ship owner, and the ship design unit is often designated by the ship owner and selected by the shipyard. Some domestic enterprises, through cooperation with internationally renowned enterprises, use their formed brand effect and service network to occupy the market, gradually cultivate their own products and brands, and realize their own networking service function. Relatively speaking, this is a way with less investment, quick effect and easy entry

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ship supporting electronic products

electronic products supporting ships mainly include communication and navigation equipment, measurement and control equipment, information systems, etc. the configuration of these products in ships varies with the type and grade of ships. Generally speaking, the more complex and high-end ships, the higher the share of their supporting electronic products

ship communication and navigation equipment mainly include: medium and high frequency combined radio, satellite communication equipment, navigation radar, GPS (Global Positioning System), SART (radar transponder), meteorological fax receiver, ship internal communication system, etc

the ship measurement and control equipment mainly includes: VDR (ship borne navigation data recorder), EPIRB (emergency wireless position indicator), gyrocompass, magnetic compass, Doppler log, echo sounder, automatic radar plotter, radio direction finder, as well as operation control system and monitoring system

information systems mainly include: electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS), AIS (automatic ship identification system), global maritime distress and safety system, SSAS (ship security alarm system), etc

others also include some onboard entertainment equipment and auxiliary facilities, such as satellite television system, lighting system, etc

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