The hottest spot trading pilot is still exploring

2022-08-12
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The pilot of spot trading is still in the preparatory stage. Why does the pilot of power reform suffer from "procrastination"

by reflecting the real-time supply and demand of electricity, spot trading can guide people to use less electricity during the "late peak" period and more electricity during other "low" periods, making people's lives more economical and the allocation of power resources more efficient. Therefore, the electricity spot market is regarded as the "touchstone" for the success of electricity reform

marked by the start of the trial operation of the spot power market in southern China (starting from Guangdong) on August 31 last year, a new round of power reform has taken a key step into its fourth year. However, more than half a year has passed, and only Gansu and Shanxi provinces have tried out spot electricity trading according to the schedule. The promotion of five spot electricity pilot projects in Mengxi, Zhejiang, Shandong, Fujian and Sichuan has encountered "difficulties", and the trial operation of the spot electricity market has not been launched before the end of 2018 in accordance with the requirements of the national development and Reform Commission and the national energy administration

in fact, even in Guangdong, which is the first pilot, the demand for graphite anode materials should be more than 10000 tons. The relevant pilot work is only a beginning - although the implementation plan for the construction of the southern power spot market has been completed by the end of 2018, the market operation trading system has just passed the review and appraisal until March 28 this year, and the supporting policies such as trading methods are still in the stage of soliciting comments

spot electricity trading can reflect the change of electricity price in real time. For example, at present, the electricity price of people's home lights is the same no matter when they are turned on, day or night, but in spot trading, the electricity price is different in different periods of time - in the night when everyone turns on the lights, the electricity price will be high, while in the night when there is less electricity, the electricity price will be very low. In other words, by reflecting the real-time supply and demand of electricity, spot trading can guide people to use less electricity during the "late peak" period and more electricity during other "low" periods, making people's lives more economical and the allocation of power resources more efficient. Therefore, the electricity spot market is regarded as the "touchstone" for the success of electricity reform

but for seemingly simple transactions, what I heard most in the interview were "great resistance", "constant controversy" and "very pessimistic"

"due to the inability of all parties to reach an agreement on key issues such as technical routes and settlement methods, some pilot areas have not even formed a preliminary plan."

according to the "No. 9 document" of the power reform in 2015, China's future power market will be composed of medium and long-term market and spot market. Medium and long-term market transactions with annual and monthly cycles have been carried out in most provinces and cities in China, while the pilot of spot electricity trading, which focuses on short-term and real-time electricity trading, is still in the preparatory stage

as early as August 28, 2017, the national development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration jointly issued the "notice on carrying out the pilot work of power spot market", which selected eight regions in the South (starting from Guangdong), Mengxi, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Shandong, Fujian, Sichuan and Gansu as the first batch of pilots, and required to start the trial operation of power spot market by the end of 2018

up to now, only three provinces have started the pilot of spot electricity. "Gansu Province was able to 'break the ice' first because of the good spot trading among provinces, which paved the way for the spot electricity." Insiders commented on the pilot of Gansu Power spot market

in view of the slow progress of the electricity spot market, the national level was forced to relax the schedule of the electricity pilot. The notice on improving the pilot working mechanism for the construction of power spot market issued by the comprehensive Department of the National Energy Administration last November pointed out that in principle, all pilot areas should carry out the simulated trial operation of spot pilot before the end of June 2019

in order to accelerate the trial operation of the electricity spot market, the document of the national energy administration also defines the leading contact departments of the pilot provinces and regions, among which Mengxi is the new energy department of the national energy administration, Zhejiang is the legal reform department of the national energy administration, Shandong is the operation Bureau and basic Department of the national development and Reform Commission, Fujian is the market supervision department of the national energy administration, and Sichuan is the price department of the national development and Reform Commission

it is reported that Shandong, Zhejiang, Fujian and Sichuan are carrying out scheme design and planning according to the plans of local government departments. "Whether the five pilot projects can be launched as scheduled in the first half of this year is still a question mark, and many experts expect to drive the national power spot market to bloom through the pilot projects, which needs to be verified." The above-mentioned insider said, "due to the inability of all parties to reach an agreement on key issues such as technical routes and settlement methods, some pilot areas have not even formed a preliminary plan."

"the core of power market reform is not to delegate power, but to 'change the concept'"

a number of interviewed experts and scholars said that the fundamental reason why the power spot pilot is difficult to promote is that the market organizers have no bottom for the results of the spot market operation

taking Zhejiang as an example, the relevant person in charge of the Zhejiang Provincial Energy Bureau said that the proportion of external electricity in Zhejiang Province is relatively high, and the increase of power supply capacity during the later period of the 13th five year plan and the 14th Five Year Plan period mainly depends on external electricity. According to preliminary estimates, by the end of the 14th five year plan, the external power and electricity in Zhejiang had reached more than 50million kW and 250billion kwh respectively, accounting for about 46% and 41% of the province, basically close to half of the total in Zhejiang Province. If this part of external electricity cannot participate in the Zhejiang power market, it means that nearly half of the total electricity consumption in Zhejiang will have nothing to do with the transaction of Zhejiang power market. At that time, the spot transaction price of Zhejiang power market will be controlled by external electricity to a large extent in the material tensile testing machine of Jinan new era Gold Testing Instrument Co., Ltd. used to stretch various materials, The representativeness of Zhejiang power market and the significance of developing market competition will be greatly reduced

xiejingdong, a professor of Shanghai Electric Power University who is engaged in spot market research, pointed out in an interview with this newspaper that the essential difference between the pilot power spot market and the current medium and long-term trading market (such as the current widespread direct trading between power users and power generation enterprises) is that the medium and long-term trading market is easy to control, and the spot market is difficult to control. Easy manipulation is a good thing for market organizers. It can easily prevent market risks and regulate the market according to the wishes of the organizers. Therefore, it is being promoted all over the country. "But in this way, it is not a real market. On the contrary, the spot market has a high degree of marketization, high technical requirements for risk prevention, and poor research, which is prone to market risk problems. This is the fundamental reason for the slow progress of China's power spot market."

in addition to risk prevention and control, the relevant parties have different opinions on the rules of the trading mechanism of the power spot market, the medium and long-term trading mode of supporting spot, and the key issues such as how to compete, dispatch, and trade with different cost power sources on the same platform, and how to connect with the spot pilot, settlement, etc., which need to be unified and clarified

with regard to these problems, even Guangdong, the pioneer of the spot power pilot, is still exploring solutions. "Our key work this year is to do a good job in the trial operation of spot goods, as well as the improvement of various rules and supporting mechanisms." An unnamed person from Guangdong power trading center told

it is worth noting that some experts believe that there are other reasons for the slow progress of the electricity spot pilot

"the core problems that make it difficult to promote the power spot market are the resistance and the reluctance of local economic and information commissions to delegate power." Some insiders pointed out that the management of power generation and utilization plans by local administrative departments belongs to the core power, and they are naturally unwilling to let go easily

another insider, who did not want to be named, said: "the core of the power market reform is not to determine the maximum non seizure load Pb, sintering load Pd and comprehensive wear value zmz of the four reference oils, but to 'change the concept'. Some people worry that the spot power will affect the interests of medium and long-term customers in the province and affect the GDP of the province."

on the power side, Chen Haoyong, director of the Institute of power economics and power market of South China University of technology, said, "power will not hinder the spot power, but welcome the spot power, because the spot trading under the condition of independent dispatching has completed the political task of reform, and its own interests will not be greatly damaged."

"spot market and electricity market are two different things. Spot market is simple in economic theory, but technically difficult."

in view of the fact that most electric power can also carry out experiments on wood, cement, concrete, rubber and their products, and the spot pilot cannot be commissioned at the set time, some insiders believe that the economic development level and electric power foundation of the first eight pilot areas in China are different, so there is no need to rush for success in the construction of the electric power spot trading management system, let alone force the "march together"

an official from the power department of the local energy administration said to, "the pilot of electricity spot cannot be fast, and it is normal to be slow. First of all, we should make clear what is the electricity spot market. At present, there is no consensus on the definition of electricity spot."

Chen Haoyong believes that there is an obvious "four modernizations" trend in the reform of the power system nowadays: the complexity of simple problems, the technicalization of system problems, the theorization of practical problems, and the formalization of reform tasks. "Spot power is not a physical power commodity, but a mathematical model for optimal scheduling. Because it is far from reality, the concept of spot power has a lot of hype."

Zhang Zizi, executive vice president of the Modern Power Research Institute of North China Electric Power University, once publicly said: "the spot market and the power market are two different things. The spot market is simple in economic theory, but it is difficult in technology."

xiejingdong also believes that power spot is a complicated work involving practical experience in many fields of technology, economy and law, and several conditions are needed to promote the power spot market: first, we must be firm in our determination to reform, and we must not have the fluke of not engaging in the market, so that we can work together. The second is to establish a "1+3" system. "1" is a good power market operation rule, and "3" is a risk prevention, market supervision and macro-control measure suitable for China's national conditions. If there is "1" but no "3", it is just like the daily work without integrity construction, which is easy to go wrong. At present, there are many researches on "1" and too few on "3" in China. Third, there should be an appropriate opportunity to start the market. The start-up of the spot market requires relatively abundant supply and demand, no general loss of power generation enterprises, relatively low coal prices, and cannot start the market when the electricity price has been suppressed by the Administration for a long time

therefore, to promote the development of the electricity spot market, "from the national level, the first is to further clarify the purpose of the reform, let everyone know the requirements of the reform, put down the ideological burden, and strengthen the belief in the reform. The second is to gradually reduce the administrative behavior of the local government and reduce administrative intervention; the third is to strengthen the guidance of the construction plan of the local electricity market." Xie Jingdong suggested, "for the local level, it is necessary to understand the requirements of the state, and dare to take responsibility and act. At the same time, we should strengthen the research on the power market, improve the awareness and ability of risk prevention, and choose the appropriate starting time."

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